RISE OF THE SAFAVI DYNASTY 249 and asked for an armistice, which was granted. In the following year a second Persian ambassador reached the Ottoman camp. He was the bearer of a friendly letter, in which permission was requested for Persian pilgrims to visit the sacred cities. In reply Sulayman wrote that there would be peace between the two states so long as the Persians did not break it, and that the governors of the frontier provinces would be instructed to protect pilgrims bound for Mecca and Medina. This peace ended the first series of campaigns between Persia and Turkey, in which the latter power had generally been the aggressor, while the former had mainly confined itself to the defensive. The Betrayal of Bayazid^ son of Sulayman.—In A.M. 967 (1559) Bayazid, son of Sulayman, rebelled and sought refuge in Persia. He was received with much ceremony at Tabriz, but by way of precaution his troops were distributed among the Persian contingents. Sulayman opened a correspondence fojrthe surrender of his son, and Tahmasp, with detestable baseness, showed himself but too ready to sell his guest. Some two years were spent in arranging terms, but in A.H. 969 (1561) Bayazid and four of his sons were handed over to the Ottoman emissaries and were executed. The price paid to Shah Tahmasp for the betrayal of his guest was 400,000 pieces of gold. The Embassies of Anthony Jenkinson to Bokhara and Persia, A.D. 1558-1563.—The intercourse of England with the rulers of Persia, which has been described in previous chapters, now reached a new and more important development.1 Under the Tudor monarchs our fellow- countrymen were writing a glorious chapter in the book of fame in connexion with Arctic exploration, wherein the cross of St. George showed the way. Among the earliest and most profitable voyages was the expedition which resulted in the discovery of the White Sea by Richard Chancellor, and the lucrative trade with Russia which was thereby opened up. This intercourse was developed by Anthony 1 Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia, edited by Morgan and Coote (Hakluyt Society).